Vinho tem prazo de validade?

Por . em 30/03/2020

No contra rótulo, um vinho geralmente costuma ter os seguintes dizeres: “validade indeterminada”. Alguns ainda vão além e acrescentam: “validade indeterminada desde que conservado em local seco e fresco, ao abrigo da luz e preferencialmente na posição horizontal”. No entanto, o termo “indeterminada” não quer dizer “eterna”.

Você já deve ter escutado frases como: Vinho não tem prazo de validade? Quanto mais tempo guardar um vinho, melhor ele fica? Vinho velho é que é vinho bom? É, pessoal, sinto muito em dizer, mas infelizmente não é bem assim…

O grande vilão, no caso dos vinhos, não é o tempo, mas sim o ar. O oxigênio, em contato com certas substâncias do vinho, inicia uma série de reações químicas que levam a sua oxidação. Então, tudo tem a ver com a combinação de oxigênio, corpo, tanino e acidez de um vinho. Nem todos os vinhos são feitos para serem guardados por anos. A esmagadora maioria é feita para ser consumida rapidamente e não para envelhecer. Há quem diga que 99% dos rótulos vendidos no mundo (especialmente os de supermercados) não são feitos para guardar.

Para suportar o tempo de guarda, um vinho deve ter algumas características, como principalmente uma boa estrutura de acidez, taninos e também açúcar (no caso dos doces) e álcool (no caso dos fortificados). Poucos vinhos são pensados e elaborados para essa finalidade – chamados “vinhos de guarda”.

Então quanto tempo dura um vinho?

Durabilidade (de 1 a 3 anos)

Em geral, os vinhos brancos e rosés são os que duram menos tempo.
O tanino é um dos elementos que mais ajudam a preservar o vinho por longos anos, e, como sabemos, o vinho branco tem muito menos contato com a pele da uva, ou seja, menos (ou nenhum) taninos.

Claro que existem vinhos brancos que podem ser guardados por mais de cinco anos, mas são mais raros (e mais caros também).

Durabilidade (até uns 5 ou 6 anos)

São os que chamamos de tintos jovens, geralmente mais leves e frutados.
Atualmente (novo mundo), em especial, esse tipo de vinho é maioria. Talvez porque ainda não se popularizou o ato de guardar um vinho.

Por passarem por uma vinificação mais simples, e menos custosas no que diz respeito à conservação do vinho, esses vinhos “jovens”, “simples”, “para o dia a dia” costumam ser mais baratos nos mercados.

obs: algumas uvas têm naturalmente menos taninos e, por isso, evoluem por menos tempo também.

Durabilidade (10, 20 ou 30 anos!) 

Os vinhos mais complexos são os vinhos de guarda. Eles passam por processos muito mais cuidadosos, muito mais difíceis e, consequentemente, são muito mais caros. É o tipo de vinho preferido e mais comercializados pelos mais velhos antigamente (Velho Mundo)

É o tipo de vinho que praticamente se torna outro após anos deitado na garrafa. Eles ganham em aromas, em sabores e em valor.  É até um pecado abrir uma garrafa dessas antes de chegar ao auge.

Muitos produtores, até para evitar que isso aconteça, já deixam suas garrafas guardadas na adega da própria vinícola antes de lançar o vinho (já evoluído) no mercado.

E aí, já parou para contar quantos vinhos realmente de guarda tem armazenado em casa? Se for hora de renovar o estoque, procure uma das lojas da Imigrantes Bebidas.

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